Thursday, January 8, 2009

Phenols - Conceptual Questions

1. What are phenols?
2. phenols are organic compounds obtained by replacing ________________ from benzene by _______________ .
4. Phenols _________ group.
5. What are mono, di-, and trihydric phenols ?
6. What is the common system of nomenclature of phenols ?
7. What is the IUPAC system of nomenclature of phenols?

8. Discuss the following methods of preparation of phenols.

General Methods
i. Alkali fusion of sodium benzene sulphonate
ii. From diazonium salts
iii. From Grignard reagents
iv. By decarbodylaiton of sodium salt of salicylic acid
v. By Dow’s process from chlorobenzene
vi. From Cumene
vii. By Raschig method from benzene

9. What are physical properties of phenols?
a. Physical state and smell
b. Boiling points
c. Solubility in water

10. Describe the chemical properties and reactions of alcohols

A. Reactions of phnolic group
i. Acidic charater
ii. Action with zinc dust
iii. Action with ammonia
iv. Action with benzyl chloride
v. Action with acid chlorides and anhydrides (acylation)

B. Reactions of benzene ring
i. Bromination
ii. Nitration
iii. Nitrosation
iv. Sulphonation
v. Alkylation
C. Special reactions of phenol
i. Kolbe’s reaction
ii. Reimer-Tiemann reaction
iii. Libermann’s test
ivi. Coupling reaction
v. Reaction with phthalic anhydride
vi. Condensation with formaldehyde
vii. Hydrogenation
viii. Oxidation
ix. Reaction with ferric chloride

11. How are alcohols and phenols distinguished?
12. Write short notes on the following phenols.
a. Phenol

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