1. What are amines?
2. Amines are derivatives of __________________ .
3. What are quaternary ammonium compounds?
4. What are the various classifications of amines?
5. What is the common system of nomenclature of aliphatic amines?
6. What is the IUPAC system of nomenclature of aliphatic amines?
7. What is the common system of nomenclature of aromatic amines?
8. What is the IUPAC system of nomenclature of aromatic amines?
9. Explain chain isomerism in amines.
10. Explain metamerism in amines.
11. Explain position isomerism in amines.
12. Explain functional isomerism in amines.
13. Explain various methods of preparing amines.
1. From alkyl halides – by ammonolysis (Hoffmann’s method), by Gabriel’s phthalimide synthesis
2. Reduction of nitro compounds – by hydrogen, by active metals, and by LiAlH4
3. Reduction of nitriles (cyanides) and isonitriles (isocyanides)
4. From Amides – by reduction of amides, by Hofmann degradation method
5. From Oximes – by reduction
6. Reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones
7. From alcohols – Sabatier and Mailhe method
8. Preparation of aniline from nitrobenzene
14. What are physical properties of amines?
a. Physical state and smell
b. Boiling points
c. Solubility in water
15. Chemical properties or reactions of amines
1. Reaction with water – basic character of amines.
1a. Compare the basic strength of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
1b. Compare the basic strength of aralkylamines.
2. Reaction with acids
3. Reaction with metal ions
5. acylation - Reaction with acid chlorides and acid anhydrides
7. Schiff’s base formation (Reaction with aldehydes)
8. Oxidation – with potassium permanganate, with caro’s acid
9. Carbylamine reaction (or isocyanide test)
10. Reaction with nitrous acid – primary amines, secondary amines, tertiary amines
11. Reaction with Grignard reagent
12. Reaction with carbon disulphide
13. Reaction with carbonyl chloride (phosgene)
14. Ring substitution in aromatic amines – halogenation, nitration, sulphonation
15. Coupling with diazonium salts
16. Tests for amines
16. what are uses of amines?
17. How do you distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary amines?
18. How do you separate a mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines?
a. fractional distillation, b. Hoffmann’s method, c. Hinsberg’s method
19 Describe the following commercially important amines?
a. methylamine, b. Ethylamine, c. Dimethyl amine, d. Aniline, e. Diphenylamine, f. N-methyl aniline
20. How do you distinguish between ethylamine and aniline? – Azo dye test
21. How do you distinguish between ethylamine and diethylamine? – carbylamine test, Hinberg’s test
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