Thursday, January 8, 2009

Alcohols - Conceptual Questions

1. What are alcohols?
2. What are phenols?
3. Alcohols are organic compounds obtained by replacing ________________ from aliphatic hydrocarbons by _______________ .
4. Alcohols contain _________ group.
5. What are mono, di-, and trihydric alcohols?
6. What is the further classification of monohydric alcohols?
7. What is the common system of nomenclature of aliphatic alcohols?
8. What is the IUPAC system of nomenclature of aliphatic alcohols?
9. Explain chain isomerism in alcohols.
10. Explain position isomerism in alcohols.
11. Explain functional isomerism in alcohols.

12. Discuss the methods of preparation of alcohols.

General Methods
i. preparation from haloalkanes
ii. By reduction of aldehydes, ketones and esters
iii. From Grignard reagents (RMgX)
iv. By hydrolysis of eters
v. From alkenes
----a). hydration of alkenes
----b). Hydroboration oxidation reduction
----c). Oxymercuration - reduction
vi. From aliphatic primary amines

Industrial Methods

i. Hydration of alkenes
ii. Oxo Process
iii. Fermentation of carbohydrates
iv. Manufacture of methanol

13. What are physical properties of alcohols?
a. Physical state and smell
b. Boiling points
c. Solubility in water

14. Describe the chemical properties and reactions of alcohols

A. Reactions involving cleavage of oxygen-hydrogen bond.
B. Reactions involving cleavage of carbon - oxygen bond
C. Reactions involving cleavage of both the alkyl and hydroxyl groups

A. Reactions involving cleavage of oxygen-hydrogen bond.

1. Reaction with active metals - acidic character
2. Reaction with metal hydrides
3. Reaction with carboxylic acids (esterification)
4. Reaction with grignard reagents.
5. Reaction with acyl chloride or acid anhydride

B. Reactions involving cleavage of carbon - oxygen bond
1. Reaction with hydrogen halides
2. Reaction with phosphorus halides
3. Reaction with thionyl chloride

C. Reactions involving cleavage of both the alkyl and hydroxyl groups
1. Acidic dehydration
2. Oxidation
3. dehydrogenation


15. How do distinguish between Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Alcohols?
i. Lucas test
ii. Victor Meyer’s test

16. How do you convert one alcohol into another alcohol?
i. primary alcohol into secondary alcohol
ii) Secondary alcohol into tertiary alcohol
iii. Primary alcohol into tertiary alcohol
iv) Lower alcohol into higher alcohol (ascent of series)

17. Write a short note on the following alcohols.
a. Methanol
b. Ethanol – Absolute alcohol, Methylated spirit or denatured alcohol, power alcohol, alcoholic beverages

For answers visit
http://iit-jee-chemistry-aps.blogspot.com/2009/01/alcohols-conceptual-questions-answers.html

1 comment:

sunil said...

nice work sir

I am preparing for msc chemistry entrances mainly HCU can make some help on that