Saturday, January 10, 2009

Mechanism of Organic Reactions - Conceptual Questions

1. What are the reactive carbon intermediates that participate in organic reactions?
2. Explain hemolytic fissions and its products.
3. Explain heterolytic fission and its products.
4. What is electrophile? Give some examples.
5. What is nucleophile? Give some examples.
6. What is Ambiphile? Give some examples.
7. What is the relationship between nucleophilicity and basicity of an element?
8. What is are variable that affect nucleophilicity?
9. Explain the concept of inductive effect.
10. What is acidic strength and how does it vary over reaction intermediates?
11. What is basic strength and how does it vary over reaction intermediates?
12. How are stability and reactivity related? Comment on the stability of carbocations and carbanions.
13. Explain the stability of free radicals.
14. What is heat of formation?
15. What electromeric effect?
16. What is mesomeric effect?
17. What is hyperconjugation?
18. What do you mean by addition reaction?
19. Explain the mechanism of electrophilic addition reaction.
20. What is Markownikoff’s rule?
21. Explain the concept of reaction rate in organic reactions.
22. What is a transition state?
23. What is stereoselectivity in a reaction? Explain with reference to addition of halogens.
24. Explain the addition of conjugated dienes.
25. Explain nucleophilic addition reaction.
26. Explain the anti Markownikoff’s rule (Kharash peroxide effect)
27. Discuss stereochemistry of alkene addition reaction.
28. Discuss the reaction mechanism of elimination reaction.
i. E1 reaction ii. E2 reaction
29. Explain the reaction mechanism of dehydration of alcohols.
30. Explain the reaction of dehydrohalogenation.
31. Explain the mechanism of Hofmann’s elimination.
32. Explain the stereochemistry of E2 reaction.
33. Explain the stereochemistry of E1 reaction.
34. Explain the reaction mechanism of substitution reaction.
i. Electrophilic substitution, ii. Nucleophilic substitution
35. Discuss in detail nucleophilic substitution reactions
i. SN1 ii. SN2
36. What are intermolecular and intramolecular reactions.
37. What determines the preference in a reaction between elimination and substitution?
38. What is the effect of a solvent on various reactions?
39 Discuss stereochemistry of i. SN1 and ii. SN2 reactions.
40. Explain the reaction mechanism of nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction.

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